Dog Training – The 4 Quadrants of Operant Conditioning – What They Are and How They Are Used

Share Button

Like people, dogs are motivated by gain and to avoid pain. Hence, to train a dog, reinforcements or punishments can be used.

So What Are Reinforcements and Punishments?

Reinforcements are anything that increases the probability of a dog repeating a particular behaviour. Similarly, punishments are anything that decreases the probability of a behaviour being repeated.

What may not be too clear though is that there are 2 kinds of reinforcements and likewise, 2 kinds of punishments. Here’s why…

The 4 Quadrants of Operant Conditioning

To reinforce a dog for a particular behavior, you can give it something it likes (e.g. a treat) or takeaway something it does not like (e.g. an aversive). Both ways, the dog is rewarded to repeat the behavior. The former is called positive reinforcement (R+) and the latter negative reinforcement (R-).

And to punish a dog for bad behaviour so as to decrease the probability of the dog repeating that behaviour, you can administer something the dog does not like (e.g. physical punishment) or simply take away something it likes (e.g. a withdrawal of privilege say in the form of a time out). The former in this case is called positive punishment (P+) and the latter negative punishment (P-).

As can be seen from the above examples, the word positive and negative is simply used to indicate if something is being administered or taken away. And because you can reinforce or punish a dog by adding or taking away things, we end up with 2 distinct types of reinforcements and punishments each or in short, the 4 Quadrants of Operant Conditioning.

Examples of the 4 Quadrants Being Used in Dog Training

Here are common examples of the four quadrants in action during dog training:

Positive Reinforcement (R+): Asking a dog to sit and giving it a treat when it sits

Negative Reinforcement (R-): When teaching a dog to retrieve, to pinch the dog’s ear (aversive) and releasing it (taking away aversive) only when the dog retrieves the object.

Positive Punishment (P+): Using a leash pop to correct a dog for an undesirable behaviour.

Negative Punishment (P-): When a dog is happily playing with another dog, to Instituting a time out by taking a dog to a boring corner (taking away play time) the moment it becomes too rough or aggressive (undesirable behaviour)

Clicker Vs Compulsion Dog Trainers and how they use the 4 Quadrants

Clicker and another positive rewards based trainers generally apply lots of R+ in their training. On rare occasions where punishment is required, they typically administer P-. In clicker training, dogs are frequently set up to succeed, giving trainers the opportunity to mark, reward and reinforce desired behaviours. Such training is therefore generally termed as more humane and dog friendly.

Conversely compulsion trainers focus a lot on using P+ and R- to get the job done. Dogs are at times deliberately set up to make mistakes, giving the trainer the opportunity to correct the dog. Hence the term correction and compulsion are commonly associated with such form of dog training.

Source by Andrew Jit Kwang Koh

Share Button

Pointers for an Ideal Chest Workout Program

Share Button

Chest workout routine: The exercises that work

A chest workout program includes both exercises that can be performed independent of equipment and those that make use of weights and other fitness equipment. Different exercises work to strengthen different portions of the chest.

The standard pushups and its variations have no equipment requirement and tone the chest muscle with the help of your body weight. The various bench press exercises (Flat bench press and incline bench press) will work on the chest muscles from different angles. The flat bench press trains the triceps and shoulders in addition to the pectoral muscles.

The Dumbbell presses and Dumbbell flyers are also considered effective sofa exercises. They stabilize and strengthen muscles. Dips also find their place among the exercises that work to firm the chest. They mainly train the lower portion of the chest in addition to the triceps and shoulders.

5 Pointers for an Ideal Chest Workout routine

• Those training the chest muscles tend to perform only one or two exercises which in most cases are the regular bench press or the incline bench press. Achieving positive results requires that you break the monotony and use combination of various chest exercises. This trains the pectoral muscles from different angles.

• It is necessary to learn the proper form and technique of performing various exercises to get the most benefit from your workout program especially when alternating between exercises or sets. The proper technique involves all the chest muscles in the motion and builds them equally.

• A suggestion is to start small with fewer repetitions and lighter weights (in case you incorporate weights in your chest workout program). This will build strength gradually and ensure you do not injure yourself.

• Certain exercises should be performed under the supervision of a trainer. You should also undertake light warm up exercise before indulging in heavy chest exercises.

• It is largely human nature to follow the crowd but, avoid doing this for your chest workout program. The chest exercises you choose should be those qualified to your physical capacity and not those that have worked for another. Follow the workout program religiously and be patient.

When deciding on a chest workout program for your capacity, make sure you allot time to cool down. This gives the heart beat a chance to return to normal and the body time to recover after the strenuous activity. It can include light movements and stretching between workouts. And to get the best results out of the workout program, one should team the workout program with the correct fitness diet.

Firming up and toning the chest can be challenging but, it is not an unattainable fitness goal. Get the techniques and exercises right and you will notice how perfectly the muscles shape up.

Source by Koen K Kerkhofs

Share Button

The Vizsla Breed As a Retriever and Pointer

Share Button

The Magyars were the first people to document the Vizsla breed being used in pointing and retrieval efforts during hunting. The Magyars were a culture who had to defend them against predators and ensured their existence by using animals in defense. The Vizsla breed is named for the Hungarian word meaning "pointer," the dogs are very intelligent and their ability to point and retrieve made them valuable.

The Magyars were threatened by invading forces from Turkey and were under constant attack. They selected the mountains of present-day Hungary, because they were protected and shielded through the entire region. With the Vizsla's great sense of smell, the Magyars continued to thrive and survive off the food they caught in the rough terrain. Many years later, the Vizsla breed became well-known in present day Hungary. The dog had been common in areas like Transylvania where they were able to remain a pure breed. It was during the World Wars that the dog became mixed with other breeds and some different variations came about.

In the 1800's the Viszla was almost ran out of its own breed class, due to an influx of English and German Shorthair Pointers. There are theories about these breeds, along with the Weimaraner, that were used in the 1900's to resurrect and cultivate the Vizsla breed. It is simply a theory, there is no concrete evidence to confirm or deny the hypothesis. The Vizsla and Pointer breed share a definite resemblance from the sharp, pointy nose to the thin and erectly pointed tail. The game flushing skills of the Vizsla are only rivaled by the Pointer.

When Communists overtook Hungary, they wanted to eliminate everything from the Hungarian culture. The Vizsla breed all but almost vanished to the point of extinction, although the hunting skills of the Vizsla is what directed in the dog started saved. High ranking officials of the Communist party loved hunting for deer and rabbit; a few Vizsla remained, but were denser in body structure.

While in Hungary the dog became popular for use in hunting rats. During the 1950's, the United States became aware of the dogs search and finding abilities and the Vizsla was imported. The dog became used for game hunting soon after arriving in America; it was used to retrieve fowl, rabbits and deer. The dog eventually became as popular in Australia as it was in America. Today, there are competitions held around the world to celebrate the Vizsla dog breed and its many talents.

Source by John P Jackson

Share Button

UFC Throw Down! George St-Pierre Vs Dan Hardy at UFC 111!

Share Button

On March 27, 2010, Geroge "rush" St-Pierre (19-2) will be defending his title, against Dan Hardy (24-6) at UFC 111. The fighting event will be held in Newark NJ and the fighting event will be broadcasted all over the world, with shows, in Canada, and china. Frank Mir will also be fighting for the interim heavyweight title against Shane Carwin. The winner of that fight will be fighting Brock Lasner for the title, when Brock is able two return to the UFC.

GSP is currently, taking on a brawler, Dan Hardy who has good ground and pound, and is very good at take down defense. Although GSP is considered one of the best wrestlers and has some of the best take downs in UFC today, it will have a tough time taking down Hardy. St-Pierre is currently on a six win fighting streak, with wins over Mat Hughs, and, Thaigo Alves. Late in the Fight against Alves GSP folded his groin, but he held-on and ended up beating Alves with a decision victory. George Showed Great character, and what it means two be a great champion that day against a tough fighter in Thaigo Alves.

When GSP was healing his groin injury, a British slugger by the name of Dan Hardy was making his stamp in the UFC, going on a 4-0, winning streak with a win over Mike Swick at UFC 105. It was that win that put Hardy at the four front of the welter weight division. Hardy is no slouch; he has been training in martial arts for a very long time, starting with TaeKwonDo, and also training in china with world famous shoalin monks. Hardy Truly describes a title shoot, with many mma wins in various leagues. Hardy has volunteered in Cage force and Cage Warriors before singing on with the UFC. Hardy made his UfC debut in 2004, and has been training with Team Rough House, and he has also spent some time training with Extreme couture. Hardy has just gotten awarded his purple belt in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu from Eddie Bravo.

UFC 111 will be one of the best fight cards of the year. If Dan Hardy wants two defeats George St-Pierre he will need to fight a perfect fight. The two fighters match up very well. George is a counter fighter, with great wrestling and picture perfect technique. On the other hand Dan Hardy is a very versatile striker with an orthodox fighting style that mad has known as the British slugger.

Source by Shaneo WN

Share Button

German Shorthaired Pointer Dog Breed Profile

Share Button

Description: The German Shorthaired Pointer is a medium sized hunting dog with a slender, athletic build. The dog is 23 to 25 inches at the shoulder with the bitch 2 inches less. This dog ranges in weight from 45 to 70 pounds. The German Short haired Pointer has a short coat with a rough texture. The coat of this dog is liver (dark brown) and white, liver, or liver roan. The tail is generally docked. The German Short haired Pointer has a life span of 12 to 15 years. It is used as both a hunting dog and as a companion.

History: It is likely that the arrival of the Spanish Pointer in Germany during the 17th century led to the development of the German Shorthaired Pointer. The details regarding the exact breeds used is not available, but it is thought that the Foxhound, Hounds of St.. Hubert, and even the English Pointer were used with the foundation stock. The search was for a dog that could hunt over most terrains, but would also serve as a reliable and good-natured companion. The AKC recognized the German Short haired Pointer in 1930.

Temperament: The German Shorthaired Pointer is renamed for its good disposition. It is intelligent and can be traced easily. This dog wants to be close to its human family and is very affectionate and loyal to them. The German Short haired Pointer is fine around children, but because of its active nature would probably be better suited for older children. It is protective of those it loves and is a very good companion dog.

Health Issues: The German Shorthaired Pointer is basically a healthy, sturdy dog, but can suffer from some hereditary problems. The most serious is Von Willebrand's Disease (a form of hemophilia) and bloat, which must be treated immediately by a veterinarian. Hip dysplasia can also occur as can entropion of the eye. Epilepsy can sometimes be present in this dog. The German Short haired Pointer can rarely suffer from heart problems.

Grooming: As the German Shorthaired Pointer has a short, smooth coat, grooming this breed is easy. An incidental brushing will suffice, but care should be taken to examine its feet for injuries when it has been outside. The pendant ears will increase susceptibility to ear infections, so they should be kept clean and dry. If the German Short haired Pointer has been hunting, it should have been tested for ticks or other parasites, and discharged off if it has become wet.

Living Conditions: While the German Shorthaired Pointer is a friendly and loving dog, it is probably happiest with an active family. This dog should not be kept in an apartment, it is simply too energetic to be content there. The owner should be aware that the German Short haired Pointer will be able to jump over a 6 'fence, so even a large, fenced yard may not be secure. Involving the dog with family activities such as jogging, bicycling, or hunting is a good way to keep it happy and healthy.

Source by Scott Allan Lipe

Share Button

Dog Training Starts With a Puppy

Share Button

When you buy a puppy, you may think enjoying them and playing with them is all you need to do. The truth is, you need to start dog training early so the puppy learns the basic commands and behavior.

Housebreaking a puppy is easier if they understand basic commands and a few words. 'No' is a word that all puppies need to understand. This word will be used more than any other word you teach them as they start to grow into an adult dog. Dog training will include housebreaking, commands and obedience.

Housebreaking starts as soon as you bring the puppy home. This part of dog training can become frustrating if the puppy does not respond well to going outside. The first thing to remember is that taking the puppy outside should be done without any type of play. The puppy needs to learn that they are invited to use the outdoors for the bathroom. If a puppy learns quickly that they have to go to the bathroom outside, you can then start adding playtime after they have accomplished what they were supposed to do outside.

If the puppy has an accident in the house, you need to immediately take the puppy to the area and firmly tell them 'No, go outside', then take them outside until they realize what you mean. The puppy probably is not going to use the bathroom at this time, but they will understand what you mean after a few times. Dog training classes are the next thing to consider for your puppy.

In the dog training puppy classes, the puppy is taught the basic commands of sit, come, stay and lay down. These commands you will find are a blessing when you are in the house as well as outside. After puppy classes, you can move onto the next part of dog training, which is the obedience classes. These classes will teach the dog about walking, healing, down and addressing any other behavior problems you may notice. Puppies that are trained will grow up to be manageable and lovable dogs. If you do not provide some type of training, you will have an uncontrollable dog.

If you choose not to attend dog training classes, you can find some great dog training books that can help you train the puppy. Keep in mind that you must work with the puppy every day for a time or they will not retain what they are learning. Dog breeders and dog trainers will tell you that you should spend at least a half-hour a day on things being learned at the time. If you only train or practice once a week, the puppy is not going to remember what you have been teaching them. If you keep up with the training, you will have a great dog.

Source by Nicholas Hunt

Share Button

Dog Training – The Heel Command

Share Button

The heel command is another very important and popular command for your dog along with many others, taking the time to teach your dog this command will save you hours of getting annoyed when your dog does not have to walk on or short walks around your local area .

The reason dogs are so 'badly behaved' when it comes to going for walks can be for many different reasons but the most common in many homes is the exclusion of wondering the streets with all the new smells, tastes, and other local dogs to discover .

The best times to train your dog and get them to do exactly what you want without too much fuss is before feeding times, if your dog wants something something they will give you a lot more attention than normal. Also puppy's and youngger dogs are better to train, even with them getting over overcated over everything, puppies and young dogs will be much better behaved and easier to train when they get older.

The heel command, when performed well and properly is used to stop your dog or puppy in their tracks, drop everything and return to your left hand side. Any distractions should be left alone and your dog should carry on walking close by your side.

To begin with you will need to go in a fairly open space with enough room to move around and walk around properly, and you will need to use a lead to gently correct your dog in this exercise or a different form of gentle punishment like the ones listed on

Begin by tapping your saying saying 'heel' to get your dogs attention and them to come towards you, when they are by your side wait a couple of seconds then start to stride forwards, at this point your unknowing dog or puppy will try to run off ahead. If this happens you should turn in the opposite direction letting the lead go slack for 5-10 feet, start to walk in the opposite direction and as soon as the slack goes in the lead your dog will realize you have gone in the opposite direction and run towards you again.

At this point repeat the first step of commanding heel to get your dog by your side. Continue doing this exercise for 10 – 15 minutes and about 2-3 times a day. Before long your dog will become used to coming to your side and obeying you whenever you command heel.

When your dog gets used to doing this command try going in circles, in figure of eight, and changing directions suddenly, if the command is still working then try your dog on short walks and then build your way up to longer walks as you progress.

Never use the lead to discipline and rough tug on, if you feel yourself getting annoyed then you should stop and continue at a later date when you are calmer. Keep repeating the process and your dog will eventually come to respect you. Some dogs take longer than others to train so be prepared for this behavior.

Source by John M Williams

Share Button

Dog Training, 6 Commands Every Dog Should Know

Share Button


There are many training techniques and philosophies that claim to be the fastest, easiest or most affective way to train your dog. The one thing that every dog training technique seem to mirror is that positive reinforcement and reward is the most effective. The second thing that all training techniques have in common is that the first step is to teach the dog fundamental commands. These fundamental commands will be the foundation of communication between canine and human.

The first command you should teach is SIT. With a few slight differences, most advice about dog training agree. The easiest way to teach this command is to cause the desired outcome to occur without much effort. For very young puppies, hold their food bowl above and behind their head. Your puppy looks up, loses his balance, and sits. You reinforce by saying the command, SIT, then praise puppy and reward with a treat. Repeat this process during each meal time and with treats until he will SIT on command without a food stimulus. Older dogs have better balance so an extra step may need to be used. Some dog training techniques suggest using a leash with no slack to keep your dog still, then just using a treat held above and behind his head, command SIT. If your dog resists, use your forefinger and thumb to apply pressure just in front of his hip bone or slide your hand over rump and apply pressure as you tuck legs and tail under to cause him to SIT. As always, praise and treat for desired result Every other fundamental command will build on the success of the SIT Command.

The second command that you must train your dog is NO. This command demands consistency from you, as the trainer, and every member of the household. The NO command need to always be spoken in a sharp guttural tone and alone. Do not use with your dogs name, or in a panicked or high pitched tone that only comes naturally if you were to walk in and see your dog chewing your favorite pair of shoes. Your tone needs to be authoritative sharp and strong to relay your displeasure. Withhold attention as punishment. Consistency is the key to train your dog.

STAY is another command that every dog should know. Building on SIT, stand beside your dog with the leash taunt, held straight above his head. Incorporate hand signals and place your open palm in front of dog’s nose. Say STAY and move in front of your dog to block his forward movement. If he moves, repeat hand signal and STAY command. If he stays, move back next to him, make him hold his STAY for a few seconds, praise and treat. As with each dog training technique, continue to slowly increase increments of distance and hold time with each training lesson. An additional element when training your dog to STAY is the three D’s. Duration, Distraction, and Distance. As I just mentioned, it is important to slowly increase the increments of Duration and Distance but Distraction must be introduced to test your dogs understanding of this command. Be sure to add distraction while training your dog before the distance gets too long. Common distractions would be someone entering the training area with a toy, another dog walking by, etc.

DOWN command can be taught just after SIT is mastered. It is important to use only the word DOWN. Your dog does not understand variations such as Lay Down. You must be consistent in training your dog that DOWN only refers to laying down. If you want to teach your dog to get down off of your chair, train OFF as your command. To teach your dog to lay down, first command him to SIT. Using a treat, draw your dog into a laying down position by dragging the treat between his legs and moving it forward. When the desired position is reached, praise, and treat. As you train your dog each new command, be sure to combine each command so patterns do not develop and the action of each different command is rewarded when achieved. (SIT DOWN STAY), (SIT STAY COME), (SIT STAY DOWN)

Teaching your dog to HEEL makes walks in your neighborhood a pleasant experience. I am sure you have seen or experienced the owner that gets walked by their dog. The owner is fearful of each approaching human or animal because they have not been trained to HEEL. Your goal is that your dog will stay close to you on a walk. He will not pull you or become too hard to control with the distractions of other dogs or humans. Start from SIT, add ‘Let’s Walk’ so your dog knows what is expected after he has learned to HEEL. A good tip, exercise your dog with play before training to HEEL. Work out all excess energy and train your dog in a quiet distraction free area. Start at SIT, use your dogs name and command HEEL. If your dog does not stay with you and darts away, turn in the other direction and repeat command HEEL and dog’s name. Remember to always to praise and treat desired responses.

The last fundamental command that is a must while beginning to train your dog is the command COME. This command seems so easy, after all all dogs want to come to you, right? The problem with training your dog to COME is that owners do not use it often enough in daily interactions. Your dog will COME when you open the refrigerator door. The command needs to be reinforced by putting your dog in SIT and STAY, then by changing your location, command COME, and use your dog’s name. Praise and reward with each and every desired result. One very important point to remember is NEVER correct or discipline your dog for responding to the COME command. The reality is that when you need your dog to respond to COME the most is when his safety is at risk. Your dog has run out and could be in danger of street traffic,. COME returns your dog to the safety of your home. Your fear response will instinctively make you want to correct your dog for running out. Remain consistent with your training, praise and reward your dog.

This is a very brief overview of training techniques and sequences to use while training your dog the fundamental commands. Repetition will be required several times while training. The increase of distance and duration, as well as the introduction of distractions, will also require repetition. Patience and time will need to be devoted while training these commands. I think you will find that if you begin to train your dog with these fundamental commands, you will find the more technical training will be easier for both you and your dog.

Source by Sarah L Falkner

Share Button

German Wirehaired Pointer – Dog Breeds

Share Button

Group: Sporting

Weight: 45-75 lbs

Height: 22-26 inches


The German Wirehaired Pointer was first bred in the late 1800s and in the beginning of the 1900s in Germany. The origin of this breed is based on the thoughts of Sigismund Freiherr von Zedlitz und Neukirch. It was cautiously crossbred from the German Pointer and numerous other breeds. Not everyone agrees on all of these breeds, but it is believed that these breeds were the Wirehaired Griffon, the Poodle-Pointer, the Foxhound and the Bloodhound. In Germany, the Wirehaired Pointer is the most popular dog. It was however only formally recognized during the 1920s.

The German Wirehaired Pointer is a very clever, lively and affectionate breed. They like to have a job to do, and without enough exercise they can become bored and difficult to handle. It is imperative for these dogs to be kept busy or to be occupied with outdoor activities. The puppies of this breed are full of energy and very rambunctious. This breed only matures when about two years old. When bored, these dogs will bark excessively or chew destructively. The German Wirehaired Pointer shows strong signs of separation anxiety and does not do well when left alone for long periods of time. These dogs are very devoted family pets, but they can at times be jealous. They make brilliant watch dogs and are also very protective of their owners and families. These dogs should be socialized when still young, as they tend to be wary of strangers later on.


The grooming requirements for the German Wirehaired Pointer are fairly low. They will even need a brushing twice during the week as they do shed. During the shedding seasons, they should also be plucked and beaten by a professional groomer. The German Wirehaired Pointer is an average shedding dogs. This breed can be bathed when it is required.


It is vital for the German Wirehaired pointer to be brought into contact with other animals and humans from puppyhood onwards. Even though they are inclined to be stubborn at times, they are still very eager to please their owners. Obedience training for these dogs is important, and it should be done in a firm manner. The German Wirehaired Pointer will do very well in retrieval, tracking and hunting activities.

Health problems

Some of the known health problems the German Wirehaired Pointer struggles with are hip dysplasia, entropion and cataracts.

Source by John M Williams

Share Button

Do German Shorthaired Pointers Make Good Pets?

Share Button

Known for being smart, friendly and willing to please, the German Shorthaired Pointer has a great reputation amongst pets. Loved for their ability to literally point, they may seem like a fun dog to have around. But much consideration goes into preparing to add this breed of dog to your family.

With a dog who is good-natured and easygoing, it seems like a no brainer that this would make a good pet for your family. But largely bred to be a hunting dog, the German Shorthaired Pointer has lots of energy and fits best with a similarly athletic owner who will take him hiking, biking, or running.

A simple walk around your block is barely even a warm-up for a spirited pointer. If they have too much confinement, it can lead to destructive chewing, hyperactivity, and barking. Bored Shorthairs are notorious for chewing through drywall, ripping out stuffing from sofas, and turning the yard into a wasteland of giant craters.

Young pointers up to almost two years old frolic and jump with great force, and things can go flying, even people. So be aware if you have young children. Make sure the pointer gets lots of physical activity.

German Shorthaired Pointers are able to learn a great deal, but they have independent minds and are easily distracted by exciting sounds, sights, scents. Some German Shorthairs are stubborn and obstinate and some can be scheming. You must demonstrate to them, through complete consistency, that what you say is what you mean.

They are very smart dogs, even varying in their barks. For example, if they meet with a stranger, they will either give you a warning, protective bark or a welcoming bark depending on if they feel friendly toward the stranger or not. But they are not aggressive with people, only sometimes with strange dogs and some cats.

With pointers, obedience training is vital for implanting self-discipline and control, for this dog can be a bundle of extreme energy. While being exceedingly trainable, they are also easily distracted and can lose focus. So his owner needs to be patient yet firm.

These dogs are truly lovable and make fine companions for sports, like hunting. After good training, they do as they are told and love their master unconditionally. They would make a great addition to any family, they just need the right circumstances so they can grow happy and do their best to please their master.

Source by Wayne Booth

Share Button